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Applying Chi Square Test

The steps lead to the calculation of the value of. x^2 for the study data
Value of the calculated x^2 is referred to the x^2 -table -where the ‘p’ value seen
Test can be applied:

a) On qualitative data
b) Random sample
c) The lowest observed frequency in all the cells is 5 or more
d) None of the observed values is zero

Advantages (over ‘SE of diff bet two means’ test):
a) Equally applicable for small samples and large samples
b) The test can be used even if there are >2 categories

Case Definition of Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) in Humans

Suspect case
A. A patient with acute respiratory illness (fever and at least one sign/symptom of respiratory disease (e.g., cough, shortness of breath), AND with no other etiology that fully explains the clinical presentation AND a history of travel to or residence in a country/area or territory reporting local transmission of COVID-19 disease during the 14 days prior to symptom onset.

B. A patient with any acute respiratory illness AND having been in contact with a confirmed or probable COVID19 case in the last 14 days prior to onset of symptoms;

Vaccines for prevention of diarrhea

• The vaccine against rotavirus diarrhea has been introduced recently in the National immunization schedule.
• Oral cholera vaccines are available, which gives immunity to 50-60% of those who take the vaccine, and this immunity lasts only a few months.
• Measles vaccine prevents measles. Diarrhea is a frequent complication of measles
Other vaccines help by preventing infection with vaccine preventable diseases, thereby preventing some parenteral diarrhea.


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