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## Membrane Processes in Treatment of Drinking Water

The membrane processes have been in use for industrial or pharmaceutical applications, and now being applied to the treatment of drinking water

These do not provide residual disinfection hence a need to add small amount of persistent disinfectant like chlorine as a preservative during distribution.

The pore size of the membrane is smallest in RO and is in the following order:

RO < Nano filter < Ultra filter < Micro filter

The membrane processes of most significance in water treatment are:

High Pressure Processes

Reverse Osmosis

## Presentation of Quantitative Data

**Tabulation**

• Tabulation is the first step before the data is used for analysis or interpretation.

• A table can be simple or complex, depending upon the number or measurement of single set or multiple sets of items.

• Whether simple or complex, there are certain general principles which should be borne in mind in designing tables:

– The tables should be numbered e.g. Table 1, Table 2 etc.

– A title must be given to each table. The title must be brief and self-explanatory.

## Presentation of Qualitative Data

Tabulation

• Tabulation is the first step before the data is used for analysis or interpretation.

• A table can be simple or complex, depending upon the number or measurement of single set or multiple sets of items.

• Whether simple or complex, there are certain general principles which should be borne in mind in designing tables:

– The tables should be numbered e.g. Table 1, Table 2 etc.

– A title must be given to each table. The title must be brief and self-explanatory.

– The headings of columns and rows should be clear and concise

## Bar Charts or Bar Graphs

• A ‘Bar graph’ is a way to visually represent qualitative data.

• They enable visual comparison of frequencies in the categories.

– The length of each bar is proportional to the frequency to be represented. Hence a suitable scale is to be used.

– Bars may be vertical or horizontal.

– All the bars in a graph should be of the same width.

– The bars must be separated by appropriate spaces for clarity

• It has been suggested that the spacing between the bars should be half of the width of the bars

## Presentation of Data in Tables (Tabulation of Data)

• Tabulation is the first step before the data is used for analysis or interpretation.

• A table can be simple or complex, depending upon the number or measurement of single set or multiple sets of items.

• Whether simple or complex, there are certain general principles which should be borne in mind in designing tables:

– The tables should be numbered e.g. Table 1, Table 2 etc.

– A title must be given to each table. The title must be brief and self-explanatory.

– The headings of columns and rows should be clear and concise

## Normal Distribution & Normal Curve

Normal Distribution concerns quantitative variable e.g. systolic BP, birth weights, age at menarche etc.

Summary values of quantitative data are:

Mean and Standard deviation (SD),

Mode and

Median

Standard deviation (SD) summarizes the variation of a large sample

Variable is mostly distributed normally if:

The sample is fairly large and

The sample units have been chosen randomly i.e. the sample is a ‘random sample’**Normal Distribution (Gaussian Distribution)**

## Sampling

There is practical difficulty in studying all the individuals in the population and it is too time-consuming not cost effective.

Sample results are usually acceptable if the sample is representative of the population to be studied

The main Objectives of Sampling are:

Estimation of population parameters (Mean, proportion etc.) from the sample statistics.

To test the hypothesis about the population from which the sample or samples are drawn,**SAMPLING FRAME:** Is a listing of the members of the universe form which the sample is to be drawn

## Maternal and Child Health (MCH) problems in India

Major health problems affecting mothers and children in India are:

1. Malnutrition

2. Infection

3. Unregulated fertility

## Maternity Cycle and Prematurity

Maternity Cycle and Prematurity

Stages in the maternity cycle:

I Fertilization

II Antenatal (or prenatal) period

III Intra-natal period

IV Postnatal period

V Inter-conceptional period

Intra- uterine stages:

a. Ovum – 0 to 14 days

b. Embryo – 14 days to 9 weeks

c. Foetus – 9 weeks to birth

Premature infant – Born between 28 to 37 completed weeks of gestation

1. Extremely preterm – <28 weeks

2. Very preterm 28 – 32 weeks

3. Moderate to late preterm – between 32 to 37 weeks