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Bio- Medical Waste Management Rules, 2016 – Major Changes

Bio- Medical Waste Management Rules, 2016 – Major Changes
DEFINITION of Bio Medical Waste
• “Bio-medical waste" means any waste, which is generated during the
• diagnosis,
• treatment or
• Immunization of human beings or
• Animals or research activities pertaining thereto or
• In the production or testing of biological or
• In health camps, including the categories mentioned in Schedule I appended to these rules
The New Rules are more comprehensive in nature
It contains important features of BMW (M & H) Rules, 1998

Diphtheria – Epidemiology, Clinical Features & Management

• Three major clinical types
– Anterior nasal
– Faucial and
– Laryngeal
• Rarely, other body parts may be affected
– Skin
– Conjunctiva
– Vulva etc.
• The bacilli multiply locally (mostly this site is the throat) and elaborate a powerful exotoxin which causes the following:
1. Formation of a greyish or yellowish membrane commonly over the
• tonsils,
• pharynx or
• Larynx or
• At the site of implantation
– This is a false membrane with
• Well defined edges and

Control of Diphtheria

Control of Diphtheria
1. Treatment of
– Cases and
– Carriers
– Management of the ‘Contacts’ and
3. At the community level
– Increasing coverage of immunization with diphtheria toxoid
Treatment of Cases and Carriers
Early detection
• An active search for cases and carriers should start immediately amongst family and school contacts
• Carriers can be detected ONLY by culture
• Swabs should be taken from both the nose and throat
• Examined by culture for diphtheria bacilli

Post – Exposure Prophylaxis for Rabies

The aim of post–exposure prophylaxis is to neutralize the inoculated virus BEFORE it can enter the nervous system
• Every instance of human exposure should be treated as a medical emergency
• The components of prophylactic treatment are:
1. Local treatment of wound
2. Antibiotics and anti-tetanus measures
3. Active immunization against rabies – if indicated
4. Passive immunization with rabies immunoglobulin – if indicated
5. Observe the animal for 10 days from the day of bite:

Vaccination Schedule in India, 2016

Vaccines under UIP, India, 2016
Brief History of the Immunization Program in India
• May 1974:
– Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI); Launched by WHO
– Included immunization against 6 Vaccine Preventable Diseases (VPD’s)
• Diphtheria,
• Pertussis,
• Tetanus,
• TB,
• Measles and
• Polio
– Later renamed as ‘Universal Child Immunization, 1990
• Jan 1978: EPI launched in India

• Nov 1985: EPI replaced in India by the ‘Universal Immunization Programme (UIP)

Domestic or Household Purification of Water

Methods available for purifying water on an individual or domestic scale are:
Chemical disinfection
Ultraviolet irradiation
Multi – stage reverse osmosis purification
These methods can be used singly or in combination
It is an excellent method of purifying water but
For being effective:
The water must be brought to a ‘rolling boil’ for
10 – 20 minutes
It kills
All bacteria
Cysts and

OT and OTA test

OT Test enables Total, free and combined chlorine in water
The reagent is ‘analytical grade Orthotolidine’, dissolved in 10% solution of HCl
When this reagent is added to the water containing chlorine , it turns yellow
The intensity of yellow colour is proportional to the concentration of chlorine
This yellow colour is produced by both free and combined chlorine residuals
However, OT reacts with free chlorine instantaneously but reacts more slowly with combined chlorine
Add 0.1 ml of reagent to I ml of water

Disinfection of Wells

Steps in well disinfection:
1. Find out the volume of water present in the well using the given formula
calculate volume of water in a wellliters
2.Find the amount of bleaching powder required for disinfection, Using ‘Horrock’s Apparatus’
3. Dissolve the required amount of bleaching powder in water
4. Delivery of the chlorine solution into the well
5. Allow a “Contact period” – one hour


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