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Types of Communication

One – way communication (Didactic method)
• Flow of communication is ‘one – way’
• Examples: lecture, television, radio
• Drawbacks:
– Knowledge is imposed (passive learning)
– Learning is authoritative
– Little participation of audience
– No feedback
– Does not influence human behavior

Channels of Communication

1. Interpersonal communication
– Face –to – face
– Being direct, it is more persuasive and effective than any other form of communication
– Particularly important in influencing the decisions of the undecided
– Superior to mass media for motivational effect
– When the message is relayed via mass media,
• It is picked up by interpersonal networks
• The message is then subject to debate and discussion in these networks and gradually forms opinions and influence decisions

International Health Regulations (IHR)

The IHR are legally binding set of regulations adopted by WHO which helps countries to save lives caused by diseases spread internationally and other health risks.
History of the IHR
• The cholera epidemics that overran Europe between 1830 and 1847 were catalysts for intensive multilateral cooperation in public health
• in 1951 WHO Member States
– adopted the ‘International Sanitary Regulations’,
– Which were replaced by and renamed the ‘International Health Regulations’ in 1969.

Hidden Hunger

• Hidden hunger (micronutrient deficiency) is a form of undernutrition where intake and absorption of micronutrients (vitamins and minerals such as zinc, iodine and iron) are too low to sustain good health and development.
• Often, the signs of this form of malnutrition are ‘hidden’, as individuals may ‘look alright’ but suffer extremely negative impacts on health and well‐being.
– Because clinical signs (e.g. night blindness, goiter) appear only when the deficiency has become severe
– The health and development is affected by less obvious ‘invisible’ effects

Global Hunger Index (GHI)

Tool designed to comprehensively measure a country’s hunger situation
and to track hunger globally by region and country
It measures progress and failures in the global fight against hunger
It is calculated
each year and
For each country
by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
The Index ranks countries on a 100-point scale, with 0 being the best score (no hunger) and 100 being the worst
Hence lower the score, the better is the situation of hunger in the country

Gross National Income (GNI) and Purchasing Power Parity (PPP)

Gross National Income (GNI)
• Formerly k/a Gross National Product (GNP)
– Gross income generated within the country PLUS
– Net income received from abroad
• It is expressed as ‘at current prices’ (at prices prevailing during the period to which the figure refers)
– The figures are influenced by inflation but are more useful for international comparison for the same period
• or
• ‘At constant prices’ (at prices prevailing during a fixed base period in the past, irrespective of the period to which the figures refer )

Operational Research

• Definition: The application of scientific methods of investigation to the study of complex human organizations and services
– A mathematician working on atomic structure is pursuing pure research
– An engineer designing a new plant for an industry is pursuing applied research.
• In operational research there is a huge sociology component
– Here one is concerned with groups of people and
– the purpose is to develop and introduce beneficial changes in to the system

Social Security

• ‘Security that society furnishes through appropriate organization, against certain risks to which its members are exposed’
• These risks are mostly
– Sickness, Invalidity, Maternity, Old age and Death
• ‘Social insurance’ and ‘social assistance’ are also types social security:
Social insurance:
• It is any government-sponsored program with the following four characteristics:
1. The benefits, eligibility requirements and other aspects of the program are defined by statute;


Acculturation = culture contact
When there is contact between two people with different types of culture, there is diffusion of culture both ways
There are various ways by which culture contact takes place
1. Trade and commerce
2. Industrialization
3. Propagation of religion
4. Education and
5. Conquest
Trade and commerce
• Ayurveda and Yoga have become very popular in Europe and North America.


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