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Role Playing (Socio – Drama)

Role-play is widely used as an educational method for learning about communication in medical education
Some volunteers from the audience adopt certain roles such as doctor or villager and act out those roles in character

The situation is dramatized by the group
• Members enact the scenario as they have observed or experienced them

• The audience is not passive but actively involved
– They can suggest alternative solutions
– They can come up and actively demonstrate how they feel a particular role should be handled


A workshop is a single, short educational program designed to teach or introduce to participants practical skills, techniques, or ideas which they can then use in their work or their daily lives.
• Consists of a series of 4 – 5 meetings
• With emphasis on individual work
• With the help of consultants and resource personnel

Delphi Method

It is a structured communication technique which relies on a panel of experts
The Delphi technique is a method of collecting opinion on a particular research question
It is based on the premise that pooled intelligence enhances individual judgement and captures the collective opinion of a group of experts without being physically assembled

1. The experts answer questionnaires in two or more rounds.

2. After each round, a facilitator provides summary of the experts' forecasts from the previous round as well as the reasons they provided for their judgments.

Panel Discussion

4 – 8 qualified persons sit and talk about the topic
– In front of a large audience
– A chairman (moderator)
– 4 – 8 speakers
Panel discussion:
1. The chairman opens the meeting
a. Welcomes the group
b. Introduces the panel speakers
c. Introduces the topic and
d. Invites the panel speakers to present their point of view
e. The discussion begins
• There is no specific agenda, order of speaking and no set speeches
• The chairman’s duty is to keep the discussion going and develop the train of thought

Group Discussion

Here, the group is an aggregation of people in a face – to – face situation
For optimum impact:
• Group size should not be <6 or > 12 including
• One group leader who:
– initiates the subject discussion
– Helps proper progress of the discussion
– Prevents side – conversation
– Everyone to participate
– Sums up the discussion
• One recorder, a person to record whatever is discussed
– The recorder prepares a report on the issues discussed and agreements reached


• Carefully prepared presentation to show how to perform a skill or procedure
• The procedure (e.g. L.P.) is carried out step by step before the audience
• The demonstrator ascertains that the audience understands the steps of performing the procedure
• The audience is involved in the discussion

Methods of communication: Chalk and Talk (Lecture)

For lecture to be effective:
• Group size should be <30
• Lecture duration: optimum is 15 – 20 min
• In addition to chalk other audio – visual aids may also be used
– Flipcharts:
– Flannel graph
– Exhibits
– Films and charts
• Advantages:
– Economical than individual approach
– Require lesser resources
• Disadvantages:
– Learning is passive as students are involved to a minimal extent
– Does not stimulate thinking or problem solving capacity
– Comprehension varies among the students

Individual Level Approach (methods of communication)

During personal interviews in the consultation room
During home visits by doctor, ANM, ASHA etc.
• The patient listens more readily
• PHN, Health visitors, health inspectors also make home visits and can be used for HE
– First create an atmosphere of friendship
– Allow the individual to talk as much as possible
– Advantages:
• One can discuss, argue and persuade for behavior change
• Provides opportunity to ask questions
– Disadvantage: numbers reached is small

Methods of communication

1. Individual approach (individual HE)
– Personal contact (interpersonal)
– Home visits
– Personal letters

2. Group level approach
– Lecture (chalk and talk)
– Demonstration
– Discussion methods
• Group discussion
• Panel discussion
• Symposium
• Workshop
• Conferences
• Seminars
• Role play
• Debate
• Delphi method


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