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Monkeypox: General Information

What is Monkey-pox?
Monkeypox is a disease caused by a virus known as the ‘Monkeypox virus’. It mainly infects animals (rodents and primates) but can be transmitted to humans from them. There are 2 types (or clades) of monkeypox virus.
1. West African clade which causes milder disease
2. Central African or Congo Basin clade which causes a more severe disease
The 2022 outbreak in various countries has been due to the West African clade.

चेचक: इस भयानक विपदा के बारे में मानवता को क्यों नहीं भूलना चाहिए?

चेचक इतिहास की सबसे भयानक बीमारियों में से एक हुआ करता थी। यह प्राचीन काल से अस्तित्व में जानी जाती है। इसमें 20 - 40% की उच्च मामले की मृत्यु थी, यानी लगभग 30% रोगियों ने अपनी जान गंवा दी। इसने 20वीं सदी में 300 मिलियन से अधिक लोगों को मार डाला।
महामारी दुनिया भर में हुई, खासकर भारत में। भारत में, वैक्सीन आने के बाद भी हर 5 से 7 साल में महामारी होती थी। इस बीमारी ने पूरे के पूरे गांव ख़तम कर दिए थे। यहां तक कि इतिहास की धारा को बदलने के लिए भी इसे जाना जाता था।

Smallpox: Why Humanity should not forget the Dreadful Scourge

Smallpox used to be among the most dreaded diseases in history. It has been known to exist since antiquity. It had a high case fatality of 20 – 40%, i.e. almost 30% of the patients lost their lives. It killed more than 300 million people in the 20th century.
Epidemics occurred throughout the world, especially in India. In India, epidemics occurred every 5 to 7 years, even after the vaccine was brought in. It was known to wipe out entire villages and tribes worldwide and even change the course of history.

Tetanus Prophylaxis after Injury

Tetanus is a dangerous infectious disease characterized by muscle spasms. It is caused by the toxins (potent neurotoxin) secreted by a bacterium k/a Clostridium tetani.
Tetanus may occur at any age and case-fatality rates are high even with intensive care. Without medical care, the case-fatality rate is almost 100%.

Categorization of Animal Bites


Reference:
Government of India, National rabies control programme, National guidelines on rabies prophylaxis, National Centre for Disease Control, 2019, Delhi, India.
 
Government of Himachal Pradesh: GUIDELINES FOR RABIES PROPHYLAXIS AND INTRADERMAL RABIES VACCINATION IN HIMACHAL PRADESH, 2019. Directorate of Health Service, Swasthya Sadan, Kasumpti, Shimla-171009

Breast Cancer: Early Detection through Breast Self-Examination

Breast Cancer ranks at number 1 amongst all the cancers in India. Unfortunately, 50-70% of the patients reach the doctor only once the disease is already in stage 3 or 4.
Learning the skill of Breast self-examination may help women to become familiar with the normal look and feel of the breast so that if there are any changes in the breasts she may seek medical help at the earliest.

Rabies Vaccination

Two regimens for POST-exposure prophylaxis

Intradermal (ID) route: Updated Thai Red Cross regimen
Consists of:
0.1 ml intradermally
4 visits: 2 doses are given at each visit, hence: 8 doses
Days 0, 3, 7 & 28 (day 0 is the day of first dose)
Abbreviation: 2-2-2-0-2

Delay suturing the animal bite wound

Suturing, if required, should be delayed for a few hours to allow RIG to diffuse through the tissues before further trauma.
If suturing is necessary to control bleeding and in severe bites, first infiltrate the wound with RIG with as much amount as is possible anatomically and then loosely suture.
Facial wounds may need to be sutured early to avoid disfiguration. This may be done ONLY AFTER careful local infiltration with RIG

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