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Hospital Waste Management Bio – Medical Waste Management

For lecture click here:
Definition of Bio-medical waste (as per Biomedical rules (Handling and Management) rules, 1998), Min of Environment and Forests, GOI
Bio-medical waste means “any waste which is generated during
– the diagnosis,
– treatment or
– immunization of human beings or animals or
– in research activities or


Lecture available on:
Definition of Blindness: WHO 2011
“Visual acuity of less than 3/60 (Snellen’s chart) or its equivalent”
Equivalent of < 3/60: Inability to count fingers in daylight at a distance of 3 meters
(3/60 is practically equivalent to counting fingers in daylight at a distance of 3 meters)
(Similarly, 1/60 is practically equivalent to counting fingers in daylight at a distance of 1 meters)
Leads to:

National Programme for Control of Blindness

Lecture available here:
• launched in the year 1976 as a 100% Centrally Sponsored scheme
• Goal: reduce the prevalence:
– From 1.4% ->0.3%
– (As per 2006-7 survey, the prevalence was 1.0%)
• Various activities/initiatives undertaken during the Five Year Plans under NPCB are targeted towards achieving the goal of reducing the prevalence of blindness to 0.3% by the year 2020.

Epidemiology: Tests of Significance

Commonly used tests of significance are

For qualitative data: (comparing two proportions)

  • Standard error of difference between two proportions
  • Chi – square test

For quantitative data: (comparing two means)

  • Unpaired – t test (the t – test)
  • ‘Z’ – test
  • Paired t – test

Chi – square test
• Applied on qualitative data
• Equally applicable on small and large samples
• Can be applied if there are more than 2 categories


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