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Acculturation = culture contact
When there is contact between two people with different types of culture, there is diffusion of culture both ways
There are various ways by which culture contact takes place
1. Trade and commerce
2. Industrialization
3. Propagation of religion
4. Education and
5. Conquest
Trade and commerce
• Ayurveda and Yoga have become very popular in Europe and North America.

Farmer’s Lung

• Due to inhalation of moldy hay or grain dust (hypersensitivity pneumonitis)
• Grain dust or hay with a moisture content of >30%,
– bacteria and fungi grow rapidly in the dust
– causing rise of temperature of 40 – 50⁰C
• This heat promotes growth of:
– Thermophilic actinomycetes esp. Micropolyspora faeni which causes Farmer’s lung
• Acute Illness
– General and respiratory symptoms and physical signs
• Repeated attacks of acute illness cause
– pulmonary fibrosis and inevitable pulmonary damage and
– Finally Corpulmonale


• Asbestos consists of certain types of fibrous material made up of silicates
• Silica may be combined with:
– Magnesium
– Iron
– Calcium
– Aluminum
• Asbestos is of two types:
1. Serpentine or Chrysolite –
– Hydrated magnesium
– 90% of world’s asbestos production
2. Amphibole
– Contains little magnesium
– Fibers are straight and longer than chrysotile fibers
• Asbestos is used in the manufacture of:
– Asbestos cement
– Fire proof textiles
– Roof tiling
– Brake lining


• Occupational lung disease caused by inhalation of bagasse or sugarcane dust
• First reported in India in a cardboard manufacturing firm near Kolkata
• India has a large sugarcane industry
• Sugarcane fiber is utilized in manufacturing of paper, cardboard and rayon
• Bagassosis occurs due to a thermophilic actinomycete k/a Thermoactinomyces sacchari
• Symptoms:
– Breathlessness
– Cough
– Hemoptysis and
– Slight fever
• Acute diffuse bronchiolitis
• Skiagram:
– Mottling in lungs or shadow


Carbon dust (coal mine dust):
Coal miner’s pneumoconiosis
• Two phases in coal miners pneumoconiosis
1. Simple pneumoconiosis: little ventilatory impairment
– Around 12 yr. of exposure needed for this phase to appear
2. Progressive massive fibrosis (PMF): severe respiratory disability and frequently results in premature death
– Once a background of simple pneumoconiosis has been reached, a PMF may develop out of it even if the exposure is ceased


• Cause of permanent disability and mortality
• Caused by inhalation of dust containing free silica or silicon dioxide (SiO2)
• First reported in India in 1947 from Kolar Gold Mines (Mysore)
• Silica exposure occurs in industries like:
– Mining of:
• Coal
• Mica
• Gold and Silver
• Lead, Zinc, Manganese etc.
– Pottery and ceramic
– Sand blasting
– Metal grinding
– Building and construction
– Rock mining
– Iron and steel etc.


Definition (ILO):
“Pneumoconiosis is the accumulation of dust in the lungs and the tissue reaction to its presence”
• ‘Pneumoconioses’ is the plural
• Dust within the size range of 0.5 to 3 micron pose maximum risk as these can easily enter the alveoli.
– Particles larger than 3 microns don’t reach the alveoli
– Particles smaller than 0.5 microns are exhaled out
– The dust particles which get deposited in the alveoli, cause inflammation in the lungs that can eventually lead to fibrosis of the lung tissue

National Iron+ Initiative

• This initiative is to bring together existing programmes for IFA supplementation for:
– pregnant and lactating women and;
– children in the age group of 6–60 months) and
– Introduce new age groups.
• Thus National Iron+ Initiative will reach the following age groups for supplementation or preventive programming:
– Bi-weekly iron supplementation for preschool children 6 months to 5 years
– Weekly supplementation for children from 1st to 5th grade in Govt. & Govt. Aided schools

National Vitamin A Prophylaxis Programme

• The National Prophylaxis Programme against Nutritional Blindness due to vitamin A deficiency (NPPNB due to VAD) was started in 1970
– with the specific aim of preventing nutritional blindness due to keratomalacia
– As an urgent measure to combat the unacceptably high magnitude of xerophthalmic blindness in the country seen in the 1950s and 1960s
• The Programme was started as a 100 per cent centrally sponsored programme


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