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Super Chlorination and Break Point Chlorination (Disinfecting Polluted Water)

Disinfecting Heavily Polluted Water

Super chlorination
Super – chlorination followed by de – chlorination comprises the addition of large doses of chlorine to the water and removal of excess of chlorine after disinfection
This method is applicable to heavily polluted waters whose quality fluctuates greatly
Break – Point Chlorination
Breakpoint chlorination achieves the same results as super chlorination (for heavily polluted water)
in a rational manner and can therefore be construed as controlled super chlorination
The addition of chlorine reacts with the ammonia in water (present due to Nitrogen of organic matter) and produces chloramines which do not have the same efficiency as free chlorine but are misread as ‘residual chlorine'
When the chlorine dose in the water is increased, a reduction in the residual chlorine occurs, due to the destruction of chloramine by the added chlorine
The end products of chloramines are not read as residual chlorine
This fall in residual chlorine will continue with further increase in chlorine and
after a stage, the residual chlorine begins to increase in proportion to the added dose of chlorine
This point at which the residual chlorine appears and when all combined chlorine has been completely destroyed is the breakpoint and corresponding dosage is the breakpoint dosage
Hence clean water will not show any break point; the ‘residual chlorine’ will continue to rise with increasing dosage of chlorine applied

OT and OTA test:

Membrane processes in water purification:

Super Chlorination and Break Point Chlorination:

Slow sand filter:

Rapid sand filter:

Purification of water at a large scale:

Criteria for a Chemical to be Suitable as Water Disinfectant in Water Supplies:

Water Supplies Disinfection with Chlorination:

Principles of Chlorination:

Methods of Chlorination in Water Supplies:

Horrock's Apparatus:

Disinfection of well during emergency:

Double Pot method:

Disinfection of Wells:

OT and OTA test:

Domestic or Household Purification of Water: