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Ghee, Butter and Vanaspati Ghee


Caloric value:
900 kcal per 100 g

Why it is not recommended for obese and cardiac patients?
This is because ghee has very high content of saturated fat.

Does it have any advantage over vegetable oil?
It is rich in vitamins A and D. Vegetable oils are poor in these two vitamins.

Is there any vegetable fat which is rich in vitamin A?
• Red palm oil is rich in carotene.
• Vanaspati ghee is made from vegetable oil and is fortified with vitamins A and D.

How is it different from vegetable oils?
• It is made synthetically from vegetable oils by hydrogenation.
• It contains predominantly saturated fatty acids unlike vegetable oils.
• It has a high content of trans fatty acids.
• It has better shelf life.
• It is fortified with vitamins A and D.

What is hydrogenation?
• In this process, the vegetable oils are hydrogenated in the presence of a catalyst under optimum conditions of temperature and pressure.
• The unsaturated fatty acids are converted into saturated fatty acids.
• The liquid oil changes into semi solid and solid fat.

Mention the disadvantages and advantages of hydrogenation.
• The unsaturated fatty acids get converted into saturated fat which is harmful.
• Trans fatty acids are produced which are more atherogenic than even saturated fatty acids.
• Hydrogenation improves the shelf life of vegetable oil.
• Solid ghee like consistency is preferred for certain types of cooking in India.

What are trans fatty acids?
Trans fatty acids are geometric isomers of naturally occurring cis-unsaturated fatty acids. These are produced by
• Partial hydrogenation of PUFA in vegetable oil
• Repeated reheating of oil for frying
Why are trans fatty acids harmful?
• They raise the plasma level of LDL cholesterol.
• They reduce the level of HDL cholesterol.

Mention its nutritive value.
• Energy—729 kcal per 100 g
• Predominant type of fatty acid content—saturated fatty acids
• Other nutrients present—carotene, vitamin D
1. Park K. Nutrition and health. In: Park's Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine, 24th ed. Jabalpur, India: M/S Banarasidas Bhanot Publishers; 2017.
2. GOI, Aug 2006: The Gazette of India-extraordinary; published by the Min of Law and Justice, New Delhi

Ghee, Butter and Vanaspati Ghee:

Common Vegetable Oils used in India:

Nutrition in an Egg:

Nutritive Value of Milk:

Nutritional Value of Commonly Consumed Nuts:

Nutritive Value of Common Dals used in India:

Nutritional Value of Common Cereals:

Terms used in Family Health Study: Definitions and Explanations: