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Checking for Fly Breeding Sites in a Household

Breeding sites

Female flies deposit their eggs on decayed, fermenting or rotting organic material of either animal or vegetable origin.
1. Dung
Heaps of accumulated animal faeces are among the most important breeding sites for houseflies. The suitability of dung for breeding depends on its moisture (not too wet), texture (not too solid) and freshness (normally within a week after deposition).

2. Garbage and waste from food processing
Garbage provides the main medium for breeding. It includes waste associated with the preparation, cooking and serving of food at home and in public places, and with the handling, storage and sale of food, including fruits and vegetables, in markets.

3. Organic manure
Fields that are heavily manured with organic matter such as dung, excrement, garbage and fish-meal may provide suitable breeding places for flies.

4. Sewage
Houseflies also breed in sewage sludge and solid organic waste in open drains, cesspools (underground pools for household sewage) and cesspits.

5. Accumulated plant materials
Piles of decaying grass clippings, compost heaps and other accumulations of rotting vegetable matter serve as good breeding places for flies.

Identification of actual breeding of housefly:
Fly breeding in garbage
Eggs are laid on organic material such as manure and garbage. Eggs are usually laid in clusters of 120 – 130. These are pearly white in colour. These hatch into larvae.
The larvae are slender, white, legless maggots that develop rapidly.
They then form Pupa which looks like a maroon coloured capsule. The transformation into adult takes place inside the pupa.
This usually takes 2–10 days, at the end of which the fly pushes open the top of the case and works its way out and up to the surface.
Soon after emergence the fly spreads its wings and the body dries and hardens. The adult fly is grey, 6–9mm long and has four dark stripes running lengthwise on the back.
Both male and female flies feed on all kinds of human food, garbage and excreta, including sweat, and on animal dung.
House fly maggots in decaying fruit

• WHO, 2004. Water, Sanitation and Health electronic library. 3rd ed. Geneva
• Poornima Tiwari, Shashank Tiwari. Chapter 13, In: Mastering Practicals in Community Medicine. 2nd ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, New Delhi
• Park K. Environment and Health. In: Park’s Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine, 24th ed. Jabalpur, India: M/S Banarasidas Bhanot Publishers; 2017.
• Keiding J. Houseflies. In: Vector Control: Methods for Use by Individuals and Communities. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO; 1997.
Practical book Community Medicine
Modified Kuppuswamy Classification of Socio - Economic Class:
Prasad's Scale:
Dependency Ratio:
Assessment of Overcrowding in a Household:
Checking Adequacy of Lighting in a Room:
Assessment of Adequacy of Ventilation:
Family and the Types of Family:
Checking for Mosquito Breeding Areas in a Household:
Housefly Breeding Sites:
Life Cycle of Housefly:
Types of Piped Water supply:
Reference Indian Adult Man and Woman:
Concept of the “Consumption Unit”:
Methods of Dietary Survey:
24-Hour Recall (Questionnaire) Method:
Determination of Socio-economic Status of a Family in a Rural Area (the Uday Pareekh Scale):
7 Terms used in Maternal and Child Health: Definition and Explanation:
Terms used in Family Health Study: Definitions and Explanations:

Lecture on the definitions and explanations of terms used in Family Health Study:
Hindi lecture on the definitions and explanations of terms used in Family Health Study:
Hindi lecture on CSC taking:
English lecture on CSC taking:
Format for CSC taking:
Geriatric CSC taking: