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Family and the Types of Family:

Family: It is a group of biologically related individuals living together and eating from a common kitchen.
Nuclear (elementary) family: It consists of a married couple and their dependent children. A “new family” is a nuclear family within first 10 years of formation (marriage).
Joint (extended) family: It consists of a number of married couples and their children living in the same household. All the men in the household are related by blood and the women are their wives, unmarried daughters or widows.

Assessment of Adequacy of Ventilation

• Every living room should be provided with at least two windows with at least one of these opening directly on to an open space. If this is not the case, advise the family to use an exhaust fan.
• Measure the height and breadth of the windows and the doors.
• Calculate the area of each one by the formula: area = length × breadth.
• Total window area should be 1/5th of the floor area.
• The total area of the doors and the windows taken together should be 2/5th of the floor area.

Assessment Of Overcrowding in a household

Three criteria have been used commonly for judging the presence of “overcrowding”
The number of persons in the household is divided by the number of rooms in the house.
The criteria for counting of persons for assessment of sufficiency of living area are as follows:
• An infant (a child under 12 months of age) is not counted.
• Children aged 1–10 years are counted as half a person each.
• All those above the age of 10 years are counted as one person each.


This is the most commonly used scale for determining the SES of an urban family. Kuppus- wamy scale was developed for assessing the SES of an urban individual. It took three parameters into account, namely, education, occupation, and income of the individual
It was modified to enable SES assessment of a family rather than an individual. The parameters were modified as education and occupation of the HOF and the income of. the whole family, pooled from all the sources . These parameters are defined later in this section.

Geriatric Clinico-Social Case in Community Medicine

The case information can be collected under the following broad headings as already discussed in the blog and lecture on ‘Format for CSC in Community Medicine’:
1. Identification and family data
2. Clinical history, general, and systemic examination of the index case
3. Family health and Housing Environment
4. Clinico-social diagnosis
5. Effect of the illness on the family
6. Management suggested (curative, preventive, and promotive)

Brief Mention of the National Policies and Programmes for Elderly (≥60 yr.) in India ( As in 2015)

National Policy for Older Persons (NPOP) 1999 and National Policy on Senior Citizens 2011
• National Programme for Health Care of Elderly (NPHCE), 2011
• Relevant Constitutional Provisions

– The right of parents, without any means, to be supported by their children having sufficient means has been recognized
– Provident funds
– Old age pension
National Old Age Pension (NOAP) Scheme,
• Maintenance and Welfare of Parents and Senior Citizens Act, 2007

Format for Clinico-Social Case Taking in Community Medicine

The objective of clinico-social case (CSC) taking is to examine the "index case” in the milieu of
• His/her family and
• Environment

The aim is to make a comprehensive diagnosis and to suggest a comprehensive treatment.
Therefore in addition to clinical history and examination of the index case, information should also be collected about important health issues of other family members and also the living environment of the case.


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