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Type of Vaccine
Liquid form (liquid pentavalent vaccine) is available under UIP.
Each dose of 0.5 ml contains
1. Diphtheria Toxoid
2. Tetanus Toxoid
3. B. pertussis (whole cell)
4. HBsAg (rDNA)
5. Purified capsular Hib Polysaccharide (PRP)
Number of doses per vial
The liquid pentavalent vaccine (LPV) in the UIP (Universal Immunization Program, India) is available as a multi-dose vial with 10 doses per vial.
Identification features of BCG vaccine (Fig. 4.1)
• The vaccine is available in dark bottles to protect from sunlight.
• Some bottles have a long neck as the vaccine is packed in vacuum.
Type of vaccine
• Freeze dried powder
For institutional deliveries: 0.05 mL at the time of birth or up to age of 4 weeks
• In case of home delivery, if given at 6 weeks: 0.1 mL (along with Pentavalent – 1 and other routine vaccines)
Advocacy is a process for raising awareness, especially among decision-makers and service providers, to ensure that pentavalent vaccination is available for all targeted children.
For pregnant women
Early in pregnancy
TT-1* 0.5 mL Intramuscular Upper arm
4 weeks after TT-1
TT-2 0.5 mL Intramuscular Upper arm
*If the pregnant woman has received two TT doses in a pregnancy within last 3 years, only one TT-booster is required during the present pregnancy
Yellow non – chlorinated bag
Which categories waste goes into this?
1. Human anatomical waste
2. Animal anatomical waste
3. Soiled waste
4. Expired medicine
5. Chemical waste
6. Discarded linen or bedding
7. Microbiological waste
The term, ‘incinerate’ means, to burn something until nothing is left but sterile ash.
In an incinerator, the high levels of heat are kept inside the furnace or unit so that the waste is burnt quickly and efficiently.
‘Flue gases’ are generated from this waste burning process.
In a double chamber incinerator, these flue gases are also incinerated in the second chamber before being sent to the air pollution control device
The flue gases are cleaned of pollutants before they are dispersed in the atmosphere.
Ash after incineration is deep buried
Rotary kiln incinerators, like the other types, are designed with
• A primary chamber, where the waste is heated and volatilized, and
• A secondary chamber, where combustion of the volatile fraction is completed.
The primary chamber consists of a slightly inclined, rotating kiln in which waste materials migrate from the feed end to the ash discharge end.
The waste throughput rate is controlled by adjusting the rate of kiln rotation and the angle of inclination.
Volatiles and combustion gases pass from the primary chamber to the secondary chamber.
National Reference Laboratories (NRL): Six NRLs under the programme:
1. National Institute for Research in TB, Chennai
2. National TB Institute (NTI), Bangalore
3. Lala Ram Swarup Institute of TB and Respiratory Ds, Delhi
4. JALMA Institute, Agra
5. Regional Medical Research Centre, Bhuvneshwar
6. Bhopal Memorial Hospital, Bhopal
Lab committee of the National labs supervises and directs the state level ‘Intermediate Reference Labs’