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This is the most commonly used scale for determining the SES of an urban family. Kuppus- wamy scale was developed for assessing the SES of an urban individual. It took three parameters into account, namely, education, occupation, and income of the individual
It was modified to enable SES assessment of a family rather than an individual. The parameters were modified as education and occupation of the HOF and the income of. the whole family, pooled from all the sources . These parameters are defined later in this section.

Geriatric Clinico-Social Case in Community Medicine

The case information can be collected under the following broad headings as already discussed in the blog and lecture on ‘Format for CSC in Community Medicine’:
1. Identification and family data
2. Clinical history, general, and systemic examination of the index case
3. Family health and Housing Environment
4. Clinico-social diagnosis
5. Effect of the illness on the family
6. Management suggested (curative, preventive, and promotive)

Brief Mention of the National Policies and Programmes for Elderly (≥60 yr.) in India ( As in 2015)

National Policy for Older Persons (NPOP) 1999 and National Policy on Senior Citizens 2011
• National Programme for Health Care of Elderly (NPHCE), 2011
• Relevant Constitutional Provisions

– The right of parents, without any means, to be supported by their children having sufficient means has been recognized
– Provident funds
– Old age pension
National Old Age Pension (NOAP) Scheme,
• Maintenance and Welfare of Parents and Senior Citizens Act, 2007

Format for Clinico-Social Case Taking in Community Medicine

The objective of clinico-social case (CSC) taking is to examine the "index case” in the milieu of
• His/her family and
• Environment

The aim is to make a comprehensive diagnosis and to suggest a comprehensive treatment.
Therefore in addition to clinical history and examination of the index case, information should also be collected about important health issues of other family members and also the living environment of the case.

Dietary Counselling for Under-5 children: Guide for Health Workers

WHY, Dietary Counselling?
• SAM = Severe Acute Malnutrition
• MAM = Moderate Acute Malnutrition
• Under-nourished children (MAM & SAM) have serious consequences
– Increased morbidity and increased risk of infections
– Increased mortality
– impaired physical and
– Impaired cognitive development, compromised IQ even in adulthood
– Develop into stunted adults
– Increased disease even in adulthood
– SAM is potentially life threatening as associated with complications

Mosquito Breeding Areas in Households

Some common places to check for water accumulation are as follows:
Inside the house
• Desert coolers
• Flower vase
• Potted plants
• Water tanges, cisterns, and other stored water
• Old cans, tires, coconut shells, bottles lying in open, etc.
Around the house
• Puddles and roadside ditches
• Open drains
• Cess pools
• Soakage pits
• Old non-functioning fountains, bird baths, ornamental pools, etc.


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