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Gene therapy

It is the introduction of a gene sequence into a cell with the aim of modifying the cell’s behaviour in a clinically relevant fashion

It may be used in several ways, e.g.
o To correct a genetic mutation (as for cystic fibrosis),
o To kill a cell (as for cancer) or
o To modify susceptibility (as for coronary artery disease)


• “Euthenics" is “improvement in the environment.”
• Mere improvement of the genotype is of no use unless the improved genotype is given access to a suitable environment which will enable the genes to express themselves readily
• Thus the solution of improving the human race does not lie in contrasting heredity and environment but rather in the mutual interaction of heredity and environment factors
• This environmental manipulation is called euthenics and has considerable broader prospects for success


“Euphenics” means the improvement of the phenotype by biological means.
Euphenics involves the incorporation of the advances in
• Molecular biology,
• Immunology, neurophysiology, and
• Other rapidly growing biological fields
Into medical practice for management of genetic diseases and their prevention
Euphenics has been advocated as “a corrective measure for our genetic ills.”


Defined as the science which aims to improve the genetic endowment of human population
Eugenics is directed against whole populations and in present times, is considered to be associated with coercive policy
Hence today, it has a negative connotation.
Eugenics has two different fields, negative eugenics and positive eugenics

Flannel graph

A piece of rough flannel or khadi is fixed over a wooden frame
Used for displaying cutouts, photos etc.
These have a rough surface at the back and hence self-adhere to the flannel
Pictures displayed in a logical series help maintain continuity and holds the attention

Park’s Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine, 23rd ed

Methods of Communication - Mass Approach

Meant to educate the whole community
• Useful in transmitting messages to people even in remotest places
• Number of people reached is in millions
• High returns for the time and money involved
• One way communication
• Generally inadequate in changing behavior
• Useful for creating a political will in favor of health, raising health consciousness of people

– Most popular
– Useful in creating awareness and forming opinions
– One way channel


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