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Nutritive Value of Milk

Write the nutritive value of cow's milk?

What is pasteurization?
Pasteurization is heating of milk to such temperatures and for such time period which is sufficient to destroy pathogens present in milk but leads to minimal change in the composition, flavor, and nutritive value of the milk (WHO).

Enumerate three methods of pasteurization.
• Holder (Vat) method
- 63-66°C
- At least 30 minutes
- Quickly cooled to 5°C
• HTST (high temperature short time) method
- Rapidly heated to 72°C
- Held for not less than 15 seconds
- Rapidly cooled to 4°C
• UHT method (ultra high temperature)
- Heated up to 125°C (in two stages, the second is done under high pressure)
- Few seconds
- Rapidly cooled and bottled

Enumerate tests of pasteurized milk.
• Phosphatase test
• Standard plate count
• Coliform count

Comment on the types of proteins present in milk.
• Milk proteins are complete, i.e., they contain all the essential amino acids.
• The main protein in milk is casein.
• This is present in combination with calcium as calcium caseinogenate.
• Other milk proteins are lactalbumin and lac- toglobulin.
• Human milk proteins have higher amounts of tryptophan as compared to animal milk.
• The net protein utilization (NPU) of milk protein is 75.

Comment on the types of fat present in milk.
• Fat content varies from 3.4 g% (human milk) to 8.8 g% (buffalo milk).
• Human milk contains greater percentage of linoleic acid and oleic acid
• Milk fat is present in the form of fine particles and hence easily digestible.
• Milk fat is rich in vitamins A and D.

Why is milk called an ideal food?
• Milk is a good source of proteins, fats, sugars, vitamins, and minerals.
• Proteins of milk contain all the essential amino acids.
• Milk fat is present in the form of fine particles and hence easily digestible.
• Milk fats are rich in vitamins A and D.
• Minerals—calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, magnesium, cobalt, copper, iodine, etc.
• Vitamins—milk is a source of all vitamins except vitamin C.

Breast milk is best—why?
Advantages of breastfeeding
• It is hygienic.
• It is available to the baby at the correct temperature.
• It fully meets the nutritional requirements of the infant for the initial 4-6 months of life.
• It is easily digestible for the baby.
• It contains antimicrobial factors such as macrophages, IgA, antistreptococcal factor, lysozyme, and lactoferrin.
• It promotes "bonding” between the infant and the mother.
• Breastfed infants have been found to have the following advantages:
- Lower mortality
- Lesser tendency for obesity
- Higher IQ
- Prevention of neonatal hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia

What are the main differences between cow's milk and human milk?
• Refer to Table above.
• Human milk protein contains higher amounts of tryptophan and sulphur-containing amino acids.

What is "toned” milk?
It is a blend of natural milk and reconstituted milk in fixed proportions.
Proportions
• Natural milk—1 part
• Water—1 part
• Skim milk powder—1/8th part
Its composition is similar to that of cow's milk.
Reference:
1. Park K. Nutrition and health. In: Park's Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine, 24th ed. Jabalpur, India: M/S Banarasidas Bhanot Publishers; 2017.

Ghee, Butter and Vanaspati Ghee: http://www.ihatepsm.com/blog/ghee-butter-and-vanaspati-ghee

Common Vegetable Oils used in India:http://www.ihatepsm.com/blog/common-vegetable-oils-used-india

Nutrition in an Egg: http://www.ihatepsm.com/blog/nutrition-egg

Nutritive Value of Milk: http://www.ihatepsm.com/blog/nutritive-value-milk

Nutritional Value of Commonly Consumed Nuts: http://www.ihatepsm.com/blog/nutritional-value-commonly-consumed-nuts

Nutritive Value of Common Dals used in India: http://www.ihatepsm.com/blog/nutritive-value-common-dals-used-india

Nutritional Value of Common Cereals: http://www.ihatepsm.com/blog/nutritional-value-common-cereals