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Epidemiology: Monitoring and Evaluation

Definition of ‘Monitoring’:
Monitoring is the performance and analysis of routine measurements aimed at detecting changes in the environment or health status of the population.
Monitoring can be of variety of activities like:
• Health program
• Air quality
• Water quality
• Intrauterine growth
• Nutritional status
• Functioning of a health facility etc.

Definition of ‘Surveillance’:

Epidemiology: Advantages and disadvantages of cohort study

Advantages

  • Incidence can be directly calculated
  • Direct estimation of the relative risk (RR)
  • More than one outcome of the risk factor can be studied
  • Dose response relationship with exposure can be studied
  • Temporal association of the exposure with the outcome can be seen
  • Certain biases like recall bias, interviewer’s bias are not a problem

Disadvantages

Epidemiology: Types of Epidemiological Studies

There are two broad types of epidemiological studies:
1. Observational studies – we do not interfere in the process of the disease, but simply observe the disease and the associated factors.
2. Experimental studies – deliberate intervention is made and the effect of such intervention is observed.

Observational studies include:
Descriptive study and
Analytical study – Case control and cohort studies are the two types of analytical observational studies

Input-Output Analysis

It is a tool for analysing the interaction between the different sectors of an economy. An understanding of inter-sectoral interactions can aid in optimizing the planning of public health policies.
Such analyses result in creation of ‘Input-output matrices’.
The main function is to make it possible to evaluate a sector’s requirements to satisfy a given demand for goods and services.

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